Monthly Archives: February 2011

Collect + intelligence = $$

In the information age barely anything is a monologue. In 2011 we love to like, dislike, share, comment, blog, check-in, bookmark, tag, rate, rank, review, and tweet everything we hear, see, feel, smell, taste and want.

Web 2.0 has provided a platform, which now offers everyone the opportunity to participate in content production. “Social network services such as Twitter or Facebook are also huge enablers of this kind of behaviour … information can be shared and/or published from a mobile phone and published instantly with global reach and multimedia support” (Colombino, Grasso, & Martin, 2007, p. 2).

This results in large-scale manifestations of collective intelligence, which Wikipedia defines as “a shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration and competition of many individuals” (Wikipedia, 2011). Collective intelligence has always existed, but today is “occurring on a scale and in a way that never would have been possible before the Internet” (Malone, 2009). Wikipedia is the ultimate display of collective intelligence online, as “thousands of people all over the world create a very large and very high quality intellectual product with almost no centralized control, and for free” (Malone, 2009).

The infrastructure provided by the Internet has meant that collective intelligence is becoming increasingly beneficial for businesses. An example of this was seen when Vitamin Water connected with its online audience to develop a new drink. The first step of the competition run by Vitamin Water was choosing the flavour. The more chatter about a flavour, the higher it was rated on the Facebook page. This created the top ten flavours when fans could then vote for the best. The second step was the design of the packaging, where “Facebook fans were able to use the app to design the packaging” (Rhodes, 2010). Finally, the black cherry and lime Vitamin Water was named ‘Connect’, through another branch of the competition. The result of Vitamin Water embracing collective intelligence was one million individuals that felt like they had impacted the development of ‘Connect’, equating to one million customers.

Collective Intelligence is also being embraced in journalism, “the process through which news is created [is] moving away from a clear distinction between readers and writers” (Colombino, Grasso, & Martin, 2007, p. 2). More often, news networks are using “content provided by non professional users” in prime time news (Colombino, Grasso, & Martin, 2007, p. 2). This form of journalism is often tagged citizen journalism, which is continuing to prove that it can “cover some issues more effectively than the mainstream media, mainly because of the limited time and space that the mainstream media can devote to any one issue” (Macdonald, 2008, para. 1).

Collective intelligence and citizen journalism is proving to be the most effective and important during times of crises. The following examples highlight this:

1. In May of 2008 a killer earthquake hit the Sichuan province of China killing 68,000 people. A popular Chinese blogger, Ai Weiwei, visited the area and decided to make a list of all the children who had died. When Weiwei formally announced his campaign volunteers assisted him all around the country by visiting the villages to uncover the truth. The campaign succeeded in publishing the names of all the children that had died in the area and highlighted the power of collective intelligence for the greater good (Joyce, 2009).

2. When the London Bombings occurred in 2005, BBC News provided features “for witnesses to submit their videos photographs, and words, which became an integral part of the BBC report of the unfolding events. Within six hours, the BBC received more than 1,000 paragraphs, 20 amateur videos, 4,000 text messages, and 20,000 e-mails” (Rajaram, 2010).

3. During the Iranian election protests, journalists were banned and computers and mobile phones were blocked. In response, protesters and journalists sent messages, photos and video via Twitter to the outside world showing the atrocities that were occurring in Iran.

These examples are just a small selection of situations where collective intelligence through citizen journalism “go far beyond ‘have your say’ instructed comments or simple collection of photos and video about an event, but actually become a structural part of the content” (Colombino, Grasso, & Martin, 2007, p. 4) and highlights that “we are all becoming a larger part of the information dissemination mechanisms that were once reserved for formal media channels” (Joyce, 2009).

The professional press is starting to explore means to make the collective intelligence that emerges from citizen journalism useful and profitable. For example, many newspapers “host social networks where readers can publish photos and blog posts” (Online Journalism, 2010) and The Guardian is even “experimenting with other means of participation like crowdsourcing, by asking the readers to help with little pieces of investigation that may contribute to mainstream news topics” (Colombino, Grasso, & Martin, 2007, p. 3).

In conclusion, collective intelligence is being used in journalism to provide insight into situations where professional journalists are unable to go through citizen journalism. Furthermore, traditional news structures are embracing the collective intelligence of readers to increase their sources and add more photos, videos and comments to stories.

Bibliography

Colombino, T., Grasso, A., & Martin, D. (2007). Collective Intelligence and the Creation, Use and Management of Citizen‐Led Journalism. Retrieved February 25, 2011, from Parc: http://www.parc.com/content/events/attachments/colombino-CitizenJournalism.pdf

Joyce, M. (2009, May 21). Chinese campaign reports quake victims. Retrieved Fabruary 26, 2011, from Digiactive: http://www.digiactive.org/topic/citizen-journalism/

Macdonald, H. (2008, April 11). Adenece of collective intelligence in media making. Retrieved February 24, 2011, from New Media Mogul: http://hughmacdonald.net/2008/04/

Malone, T. (2009, February 4). Thomas Malone speaks on Collective Intelligence. Retrieved February 26, 2011, from YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ITQ7XYG8Tk4&feature=related

Online Journalism. (2010, January 15). What is User Generated Content? Retrieved February 27, 2011, from Online Journalism Blog: http://onlinejournalismblog.com/2010/01/15/what-is-user-generated-content/

Rajaram, D. (2010, November 24). Citizen Journalism and User-generated Content. Retrieved February 25, 2011, from Suite101: http://www.suite101.com/content/citizen-journalism-and-user-generated-content-a312843#ixzz1F9XPr573

Rhodes, M. (2010, January 11). Social Media Case study: Vitamin Water’s newest flavour created by Facebook fans. Retrieved February 27, 2011, from Fresh Networks: http://www.freshnetworks.com/blog/2010/01/case-study-vitamin-waters-newest-flavour-created-by-facebook-fans/

Wikipedia. (2011, February 14). Collective Intelligence. Retrieved February 24, 2011, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_intelligence

Convergence in Journalism

“Convergence is about being flexible enough to provide news and information to anyone and everyone, anytime and all the time, anywhere and often everywhere without abandoning key journalistic values” (Kolodzy, 2006, pg.vii).


Photo credit: cohdra from morguefile.com

Convergence on a large scale is currently occurring in the world of journalism as the traditional roles of journalists are being stretched, pulled, prodded and challenged everyday. Convergence in journalism can be seen in two ways:

  1. The union of all forms of media to create interactive, all encompassing news reporting – otherwise known as multimedia journalism and
  2. The new type of journalist that writes, films, produces and edits their own news stories, or backpack journalism.

Multimedia Journalism

As Kolodzy discusses, “convergence in journalism means the coming together of journalists and certain types of journalism that have been operating in separate spheres – newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and online – to provide quality news in all those different formats” (2006, pg.10). This convergence has lead to a “multi-platform, multimedia environment” (Wallace, 2009, pg.685), where news is no longer a one-way system “offering little opportunity for feedback on the part of the reader or the viewer” (Stevens, 2003, para5). Instead multimedia journalism combines “text, still photos, animation, graphics, video and audio” (Stevens, 2003, para6) to create two-way communication where individuals can contribute their own knowledge and resources.

Henry Jenkins, a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology discusses that convergence is not an end state; it is a continuous and dynamic process (Kolodzy, 2006, pg4), and therefore convergence will continue to play a large role in journalism. In her book, Convergence Journalism, Kolodzy discusses that “less than thirty years ago, the digitization of words, pictures, and sound for access by a variety of electronic devices seemed like science fiction” (Kolodzy, 2006, pg.5), so adding another ten years onto that, what will the world of journalism look like?

Backpack Journalism

In the 21st century, the constant demand for information has lead to many changes for journalism: for example the emergence of twenty-four hour news operations, the use of the internet and social networking sites providing live news feed, and the new phenomena that everyone can be a journalist. Bill Gentile, a pioneer in ‘backpack journalism’, explains this final concept further:

“Ordinary citizens of the world now wield extraordinary power; we wield the power to communicate instantly, globally and in a language, the visual language, which supersedes both the written and spoken word. This visual language knows no frontiers, it needs no translation… it is one of the most powerful tools of our time. Backpack journalism is the embodiment of this visual language” (Gentile, 2010).

Gentile is discussing the way that individuals are “challenging the traditional media’s role as gatekeepers of news and information” (Kolodzy, 2006, pg.3). This is where convergence comes into play, as journalists needs to compete with the ability and resources now in the hands of a large proportion of the world to report on news and events, as well as the expectations and demands on the 21st century news audience; “convergence is about acknowledging that the way journalism has always been done needs to evolve, and continue to evolve, because news audiences are evolving” (Kolodzy, 2006, p.vii).


Photo credit: jppi from morguefile.com

Backpack journalism, other wise known as ‘one-man-band’ journalism, is the personification of the modern convergence of journalism, where “one news gatherer acts as both camera operator and reporter, and sometimes editor” (Wallace, 2009, pg.685). This transformation in journalism has been aided by the replacement of heavy cameras that were difficult to operate with “lightweight digital video cameras that allow journalists to move freely about the room, in order to get closer to their subjects, to spend more time, to become far more intimate” (Tompkins, 2011). Today, in cable news operations “it is common to expect journalists to write stories, shoot video, and edit it themselves. This is a sharp contract from traditional broadcast news stations, where reporting, news photography, and video editing are discrete professions” (Kawamoto, 2003, pg.68).

Into the future…

Ten years into the future, convergence will continue to impact on journalism in both ways that it is impacting today. Firstly, news coverage will become increasingly interactive and personalized as all forms of media combine to provide more instant and accurate information. Secondly, the age of the backpack journalist I predict will be in full swing, all though as Kawamoto discusses, specialists will always be required in the journalism field, it will be the individuals that can perform on multiple platforms and think beyond simply print, video or the Internet and converge these medias will be the most successful (2003, p.72).

Reference List

Gentile, B. (2010, December 9). Backpack journalism today [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q9jQLqQQ-iw

Kawamoto, K. (2003). Digital journalism: emerging media and the changing horizons of journalism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., USA.

Kolodzy, J. (2006). Convergence journalism: writing and reporting across the news media. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., USA.

Stevens, J. (2003). Backpack journalism is here to stay. In Online Journalism Review. Retrieved from http://www.ojr.org/ojr/workplace/1017771575.php

Tompkins, B. (2011, January 3). Backpack journalists: where did they come from? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://brandontompkins.wordpress.com/2011/01/03/backpack-journalist-where-did-they-come-from/

Wallace, S. (2009). Watchdog or Witness? The emerging forms and practices of video journalism. Journalism, 10, 684. doi: 10.1177/146488490910653